Gasoline direct injection engines - Cars Info 24

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Thursday, January 23, 2020

Gasoline direct injection engines


Gasoline direct injection engines.


or abbreviated   GDI, is an alternative system of fuel injection used in modern gasoline engines.  It is injected via a common fuel line directly in the combustion chamber of each cylinder, unlike conventional engines based on multi-point fuel injection that occurs in the intake device, or cylinder port.

 Types of motors

 

 A graph showing the displacement of the gasoline engine, consisting of four cylinders

 The most famous combustion engines:

 Diesel engine 1

 Otto drive 2

 Stirling engine 3

 4 Internal combustion engine

 5 External combustion engine

7 Steam engine

 Electrical engine 8

 GDI system direct fuel injection 

 Gasoline Direct Injection system: Gasoline engines were known in the twentieth century to use the suction system to enter fuel into the engine cylinder through the piece that mixes air with fuel, which is what we call the carburetor. In this carburetor, the following air is sucked in.  From the filter, and through this suction, the fuel is pumped from a small tank inside the carburetor to mix the gasoline and then pass it to the engine cylinder to start the combustion process, then attempts came from European manufacturers in the seventies to regulate the entry of fuel to the engine cylinder through a valve sprayer that works with the pressurized fuel from a circulating pump with  The engine ran and timing, and the sprayer sprayed fuel on the air drawn to the cylinder. Manufacturers quickly modified the idea of ​​multiple sprays with the number of cylinders, which was later known as the fuel injection system. After that, electronic technology in the eighties entered the fuel injection system, and an electric fuel pump appeared instead of the mechanical pump and the electric sprayer replaced  Compact valve valve and timing control come from an electronic circuit known as the EFI electronic fuel injection system

 All of these methods of fuel injection deal with the air drawn to the cylinder by suction so that the fuel is introduced indirectly

 In the GDI system direct fuel injection, the handling is with the compressed air inside the cylinder itself exactly (as happens in the diesel engine) where the sprayer sprinkles fuel on the surface of the piston (piston) directly and the place of the electronic sprayer is above the cylinder and adjacent to the valves and the spark plug and leaves its old place in the (manifold)  )

 In the past, direct fuel injection was borne by German engineers at Bosch and Daimler Benz in 1955, when it appeared on the Mercedes 300 SL. It was a new idea at the time, but it was not completed for technical and administrative reasons at the time, so the idea remained in the past.

 Until Japanese engineers at Mitsubishi reworked the idea again in 1996 and added new adjustments to fit the development in engine parts, the first direct fuel injection engine appeared in 1998 and the 4G93 engine was on Mitsubishi Galant and then companies rolled out to produce engines with this system so Volkswagen developed engines that work  With a direct injection system called Fuel Stratified Injection (FSI) i.e. applicable fuel injection followed by BMW, GM and Mazda

 Toyota applied the technology, but with an amendment, the duplication of the regular direct injection system and direct injection, where each cylinder had two sprays on the manifold and one directly integrated with the head and appeared on the engine 2GR-FSE in 2006.

 New in GDI drives

 The new is changes in the cutting of the engine itself before cutting the injection system where the head was adjusted to open a place for the direct sprayer with the addition of a mechanical fuel pump. We work with the engine rotation and adjusting the valves to suit the pressure caused by the incline combustion.  It also requires adjusting the displacement dimensions to fit the combustion chambers on the piston surface.

 Direct sprayer

 As for the direct sprayer, it is an electronic sprayer like the well known sprayer in EFI, it draws fuel from the pump via a tube or a pressurized fuel rod and receives the opening signal from the ECU electronic control unit, but it was designed to work on stronger fuel pressure, high temperature and large compression ratios, similar to the diesel sprayer with D4D engines.

 Mechanical fuel pump

 HIGH PRESSURE PUMP Mechanical Fuel Pump: It is a high pressure mechanical pump that works with the engine rotation and is often connected with the cam shaft or with a chain or timing belt (TIMING). This pump receives fuel from a regular electric pump inside or outside the fuel tank and then the fuel is compressed  To a high degree by mechanical pump to the fuel pressure tube and then to the sprayer. The pump is connected to the electronic control unit ECU (computer) where the fuel pressure is electronically controlled by an electrical valve inside the pump.

 Fuel pressure sensor

 Fuel pressure sensor FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR: It is a normal electronic sensor installed with a fuel pressure tube and its function is to measure the fuel pressure inside the tube and then send signals to the ECU control unit where signals are sent to the mechanical fuel pump by opening or closing the fuel pressure valve to keep the fuel pressure from increasing  Or decrease.

 GDI direct injection system features

 Ensure complete combustion of fuel in the cylinder compared to regular engines.

 The high performance of the engine with the highest output and highest net torque.

 High engine efficiency at low revs.

 Disadvantages of the GDI direct injection system

 The excessive combustion products of nitrogen oxides harmful to the environment has led to the prevention of the system in European countries, some of which were allowed with the installation of filters and treatments for exhaust products by car.

 Small motors may not work well with the system for small displacement dimensions.

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